Arachnids of The Namib Naukluft Park

The arachnids of the Namib Desert, have evolved and adapted over millions of years to thrive in the harsh, arid conditions of the desert.

Many of the arachnids found in the Namib are exclusive to the region, demonstrating a level of endemism that is both unique and fascinating.

Researchers have discovered numerous new and little-known arachnids in this area, showcasing the desert’s rich biodiversity. The sand dunes of the Namib Naukluft Park, in particular, provide an ideal habitat for species such as solifuges, which are believed to have the greatest diversity in Namibia. While the desert may seem inhospitable to life, these arachnids have found ways to overcome challenges posed by the environment. A better understanding of the Namib Desert’s arachnid population contributes to the broader knowledge of desert invertebrates and their role in the ecosystem.

Arachnid Diversity in the Namib Naukluft Park


The Namib is home to a wide array of arachnid species, particularly scorpions. These creatures thrive in the rocky areas of the desert, where they can easily find suitable habitats for shelter and hunting. Some notable species found in the Park are the Parabuthus, a large and venomous genus of scorpions, and the smaller Uroplectes, known for their striking patterns.


In addition to scorpions, the Namib Desert boasts an impressive diversity of spider species. The region’s higher rainfall areas provide an optimal environment for these creatures, with species such as the Velvet Spider Seothyra schreineri, a burrowing spider belonging to the Eresidae family, being of particular interest.

These spiders have adapted to the harsh desert conditions by developing unique foraging behaviours at the thermal limit. Furthermore, the interactions between environmental factors and spider activity have been studied, showcasing the complexity of such psammophilous species.


Solifuges, also known as sun spiders or camel spiders, are another fascinating group of arachnids found in the Namib Desert. They are characterised by their large size, formidable speed, and their ability to thrive in the arid environment.

They can be found in the drier areas of the desert, where their unique adaptations and feeding habits allow them to successfully coexist with other arachnid species.

An interesting aspect of solifuges in the Namib Desert is their connection to the lichen-dominated soil crusts, which provide a habitat for a variety of arthropods, including these captivating creatures.


Harvestmen are easily identified by their long, thin legs and oval-shaped body. They range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in length and come in a variety of colors, including brown, gray, and black. Unlike spiders, Harvestmen do not have the ability to spin webs and instead rely on their excellent vision and camouflage to hunt for prey.

Despite their small size, Harvestmen play a crucial role in the Namib Naukluft Park’s ecosystem. They are known to prey on insects and other small arthropods, helping to control pest populations and maintain a healthy balance in the food chain. Their presence provides food for larger predators such as birds and reptiles.

The park is home to several venomous arachnids species, including:

1. Black Hairy Thicktail Scorpion (Parabuthus villosus)

2. Granulated Thick Tailed Scorpion (Parabuthus granulatus)

3. Six-Eyed Sand Spider (Sicarius terrosus)

4. Wolf Spider (Pardosa namibensis)

Adaptations to Desert Environment

Morphological Adaptations

Namib Desert arachnids possess unique morphological adaptations that enable them to survive and thrive in hot and dry environments. For instance, many desert spiders have developed lighter colouration to reflect sunlight and minimise heat absorption, as observed in Desert adaptations in spiders.

One interesting feature of Namib desert spiders is their ability to dig burrows in the sand. The burrows provide them with a cooler and more humid microhabitat, which is essential for their survival in the harsh desert conditions. These arachnids tend to have a streamlined body shape, which allows them to move efficiently through their sandy habitat, as described in Psammophily in Namib desert spiders.

Behavioural Adaptations

Arachnids in the Namib Desert exhibit various behavioural adaptations that help them thrive in their harsh environment. One such adaptation is their nocturnal lifestyle, which enables them to avoid the extreme heat during the day. By being active at night, these creatures can conserve water and energy.

In addition to their nocturnal habits, these arachnids are also known for their efficient hunting strategies. They typically wait patiently for their prey to come within striking distance before launching a swift and precise attack. This ambush-style hunting technique allows them to conserve energy and increase their chances of a successful capture.

Another behavioural adaptation observed in Namib Desert arachnids is their ability to navigate their environment. They have developed specific ways of sensing vibrations and detecting chemical cues to find food, locate mates, and avoid predators. This acute sensory awareness is crucial for survival in a habitat with limited resources and numerous threats.

In summary, the arachnids of the Namib Desert have evolved a range of morphological and behavioural adaptations that enable them to survive in one of the planet’s most inhospitable environments. These adaptations are vital in allowing these creatures to negotiate the challenges of their habitat effectively and efficiently.

Impact on Ecosystem

The Namib Desert is home to a variety of arachnid species, which play a significant role in the ecosystem. These creatures contribute to the balance of nature by acting both as predators and prey. In this section, we will explore the roles of arachnids in the Namib Desert ecosystem, specifically focusing on their functions as predators and as prey.

Arachnids as Predators

Arachnids, primarily spiders and scorpions, are efficient predators in the Namib Desert ecosystem. They feed on various insects, helping to control their populations and maintain ecological balance. One example of an important predator in the Namib Desert is the Seothyra henscheli, a sit-and-wait spider. This spider is known to relate to spatially heterogeneous habitat features, which influence its foraging costs and benefits source.

Furthermore, the physical factors of the Namib Desert, such as sand compaction, slope, exposure to wind, and presence of vegetation, influence the habitat use of these arachnid predators source. Consequently, these conditions impact their predatory behaviours, affecting the overall balance of the ecosystem.

Arachnids as Prey

Arachnids also serve as an essential food source for various desert-dwelling animals, such as reptiles, birds, and small mammals. For example, the Namib Desert dune ecosystem is inhabited by reptiles that rely on arachnids as one of their primary food sources source. Therefore, arachnids play a crucial role in the food chain by transferring energy and nutrients from the organisms they consume to their predators.

Additionally, the activity patterns and abundance of arachnids in the Namib Desert are influenced by the climate, with some species becoming more active during periods of rainfall or favourable temperatures source. These fluctuations in arachnid populations affect their availability as prey and can have ripple effects throughout the food chain and ecosystem.

In conclusion, arachnids in the Namib Desert play a vital role in the ecosystem, functioning as both predators and prey. By maintaining population control of smaller organisms and serving as a critical food source for larger animals, they contribute significantly to the balance of life in this harsh and unforgiving environment.

Conservation and Climate Change

Threats to Arachnid Populations

Arachnid populations in the Namib Desert face several threats. One of the primary concerns is climate change, which has the potential to alter the fragile desert ecosystem. According to a study on Welwitschia mirabilis, a keystone species in the Namib Desert, such changes could have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem, including insects and arachnids.

Another threat to arachnids is habitat loss due to human activities such as mining and infrastructure development. Namibia has a rich mineral wealth, and mining operations can lead to the destruction of arachnid habitats and the disruption of ecological balance.

Current Conservation Efforts

To address these threats, targeted conservation measures are in place to protect arachnid populations in the Namib Desert. Some of these efforts include:

  • Protected Areas: Several Namib Desert regions have been designated as protected areas to conserve biodiversity, such as the Namib-Naukluft National Park, which provides safe havens for threatened species and important habitats.
  • Research and Monitoring: Continued research on the environmental factors affecting the web and activity of spiders in the desert dunes contributes to a better understanding of arachnid populations and their vulnerability to climate change.
  • Conservation in Southern Africa: A broader scale of ecosystem conservation is being implemented through projects like the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA), which spans several countries and aims to enhance collaboration between nations in addressing habitat loss and climate change impacts on shared ecosystems.

These efforts contribute to the protection and preservation of arachnid populations in the Namib Desert amid the challenges posed by climate change and human activities.

At Agama Lodge, we offer a variety of activities for you to enjoy during your stay, one activity that you really must consider is a guided scorpion walk which takes place after dark, giving you the unique opportunity to view these fascinating creatures in a way that you would not normally be able to.

Frequently Asked Questions

Common Namib arachnids?

Namib Desert is home to several fascinating arachnid species, including a variety of spiders and scorpions. Some of the most common arachnids in this area include the dancing white lady spider (Leucorchestris arenicola), the cartwheeling spider (Carparachne aureoflava), and a number of different varieties of huntsman spiders.

Dangerous species in Namib?

Whilst many arachnids in the Namib Desert are not dangerous to humans, there are some venomous species, particularly among scorpions. The parabuthus scorpion is one such example, with its venom posing a potential risk to humans in rare cases. However, bites and stings from arachnids in the Namib Desert are generally uncommon and fatalities even rarer.

Unique adaptations?

Arachnids in the Namib Desert have developed extraordinary adaptations to help them survive in this harsh environment. One example is psammophily – the ability of some spiders to camouflage themselves in the sand. Additionally, many species have evolved behavioural and physiological adaptations to cope with the extreme temperature variations and water scarcity found in the desert.

White lady spider facts?

The white lady spider is a skillful burrower and gets its name from its pale colouration, which allows it to blend in with the desert sands. It is known for its remarkable hunting technique, which involves detecting vibrations and chasing its prey across the sandy surface. By using its specially adapted limbs, the white lady spider can perform high-speed leaps to capture insects and move incredibly fast in pursuit.

Cartwheel spider speed?

The cartwheel spider possesses a unique acrobatic ability: it can somersault or ‘cartwheel’ across the sands to escape predators or to pursue prey. This behaviour allows it to move at an incredible speed, covering up to 1 to 2 meters per second. This is especially beneficial for escaping the various predators that inhabit the Namib Desert, such as wasps and larger arachnids.

Huntsman spider size?

Huntsman spiders found in the Namib Desert can grow to be quite large, with some species having a leg span of up to 15cm. These agile spiders are known for their speed and hunting prowess, often ambushing their prey rather than relying on web-building techniques. Their size and speed make them efficient predators, capable of capturing a wide range of insects and other arthropods found in this harsh environment.