Rhagodes Carinatus

Rhagodes carinatus, a unique species of solifuge, is found in the vast deserts of Namibia. These creatures, often referred to as camel spiders or sun spiders, hold a crucial position in arachnid biodiversity and inspire endless fascination among biologists and nature enthusiasts alike.

With their peculiar appearance, quick movements, and intriguing behaviour, Rhagodes carinatus continues to draw the attention of researchers looking to uncover the secrets of these enigmatic arachnids.

In Namibia, this extraordinary species thrives amidst the challenging desert conditions, well-adapted to these harsh environments. Their nocturnal habits and powerful jaws equip them aptly to survive the unforgiving landscapes of Namibia.

Rhagodes Carinatus Description

Physical Characteristics

These arachnids exhibit several distinct features that set them apart from other arachnids. With a length ranging from 5 to 7 cm, Rhagodes carinatus possesses a robust body covered in setae, which are hair-like structures.

Their chelicerae, the mouthparts used for grabbing and cutting prey, are elongated and powerful. Their legs are long and slender, with the first pair often mistakenly considered antennae.

Rhagodes carinatus can be identified by its mottled brown and beige colouration, which provides excellent camouflage in its arid environment. Like other solifuges, they have no venom glands or silk-producing organs, relying on their speed and agility to hunt and escape predators.

Habitat and Distribution

Rhagodes carinatus is primarily found in the arid regions of Namibia. The species is well-adapted to survive in harsh desert conditions, where daytime temperatures can rise significantly, and food resources are often scarce.

They inhabit sandy areas, rocky outcrops, and sparsely vegetated dunes, utilising their camouflage abilities to blend in with the surroundings.

The primary distribution range of Rhagodes carinatus is limited to Namibia, where they are known to be active mainly during the night, seeking shelter during the day to avoid the scorching sun. Their nocturnal lifestyle helps them evade predators and stay cool during the hottest hours; sometimes, they can also be encountered during dawn or dusk.

Life Cycle and Behaviour


Rhagodes carinatus showcases unique reproductive behaviour. The males engage in complex courting rituals to attract females for mating. During this process, males perform a series of leg-waving movements and drumming on the ground to signal their presence and intent to potential mates1.

Once a receptive female is encountered, the pair mate, after which the female lays her eggs in a sheltered location, such as under rocks or in crevices.

The eggs undergo a gradual process of development until they eventually hatch into small solifugids. These juveniles resemble miniaturised versions of their adult counterparts, and they shed their exoskeletons as they grow.

The life cycle of Rhagodes carinatus consists of several such molting stages, called instars, until they reach maturity and are capable of reproduction themselves.

Feeding Habits

As a carnivorous arachnid, Rhagodes carinatus primarily feeds on various small arthropods like insects and spiders. They are known for their voracious appetites and impressive hunting efficiency. Employing a sit-and-wait strategy, these creatures spot their prey using their well-developed senses of touch and vibrations through the ground2.

Once they detect a potential meal, they swiftly ambush their prey, capturing it with their powerful chelicerae.

These solifugids consume their food by injecting digestive enzymes, which break down their prey’s bodily tissues. The liquefied contents are then ingested, ensuring efficient nutrient extraction. This efficient feeding mechanism allows them to thrive in their harsh desert environment, where resources may be scarce.

Conservation Status and Threats

Human Impact

The collection of these creatures for the pet trade also puts pressure on their populations, leading to a decline in their numbers in the wild.


While the Rhagodes carinatus itself is a predator, it is also preyed upon by several natural enemies, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Various species of birds, such as hornbills and shrikes, are known to feed on solifuges, while meerkats, mongooses, and snakes are common mammal and reptile predators.

This predation pressure contributes to the fluctuating population numbers of Rhagodes carinatus in Namibia.


Despite their robust build, Rhagodes carinatus populations may be vulnerable to the spread of diseases and parasites. Some common diseases in arachnids include nematode infections and protozoan parasites, which can cause symptoms like inactivity, loss of appetite, and even death. The health of these creatures can affect their overall fitness and reproductive capabilities, which, in turn, has an impact on population numbers.

The threats posed by human activities, natural predators, and diseases contribute significantly to the conservation status of Rhagodes carinatus in Namibia.

Research and Future Studies

Current Studies

Rhagodes carinatus has been the subject of limited research in recent years. Current studies focus primarily on its ecology, distribution, and behavioural patterns.

These studies aim to better understand the species’ habitat preferences, interactions with other organisms, and potential adaptations to the arid environment of Namibia.

In addition to ecological research, some studies have been examining the morphology and physiology of Rhagodes carinatus. This includes investigations into the species’ unique features, such as its distinctive cephalothorax and robust chelicerae, which play a crucial role in their predatory behaviour.

By gaining an in-depth understanding of Rhagodes carinatus’s morphology, researchers hope to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that drive its survival and success in Namibia’s challenging climate.

Potential Research Opportunities

There are several untapped research opportunities concerning Rhagodes carinatus that could greatly increase our knowledge of this intriguing creature. One such opportunity lies in the study of the species’ reproductive strategies and life history traits.

Researchers could explore questions around mating behaviour, offspring development, and population dynamics, ultimately helping to shed light on the life cycle of this solifuge species.

Another promising avenue of research is the investigation of Rhagodes carinatus’s venom properties. While solifuges are not considered dangerously venomous to humans, they do possess venom glands and can deliver bites to subdue their prey.

Studying the chemical composition and potential pharmacological properties of Rhagodes carinatus’s venom may reveal new information about the species, as well as inspire possible applications in biomedicine.

Further research could also focus on the impact of climate change and human activities on Rhagodes carinatus populations in Namibia. As global temperatures continue to rise, and natural habitats are increasingly disturbed, gaining insight into how these changes affect the species’ distribution, behaviour and survival becomes critically important for effective conservation efforts.


  1. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/221/15/jeb184614 
  2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225661087_Reproductive_biology_of_solifuges